Materials

  1. Written records (Ethnohistory)
    1. Filipino records
      – Laguna Copperplate (deciphered); 1000
      – Butuan Paleograph (undeciphered); c. 12th-15th C
      – Calatagan Ritual Pot (undeciphered); c. 14-15th C
      – Monreal (Ticao) Stones (undeciphered) c. 17th C (?)
    2. Chinese records
      – 宋史, Sòng Shǐ (History of the Song Dynasty, 960-1279; compiled starting 1343)
      – 諸蕃志, Zhū Fān Zhì (Description of Barbarian Nations, 1225)
      – 島夷誌略, Dǎo Yí Zhì Lüè (Brief Account of Island Barbarians, 1349)
    3. Spanish and European records (accounts, dictionaries, vocabularies etc.)
      – Pigafetta (1521), Legaspi (1570), Loarca (1582), Plasencia (1589), Anonymous [Boxer Codex] (1590), Chirino (1604), Morga (1609), Colin (1660), Alcina (1668), etc.
    4. Maguindanao and Sulu royal genealogies (Tarsilas)
  2. Intangible cultural heritage (Ethnology)
    1. Language(linguistics and paleography)
    2. Traditional knowledge (including ethnoastronomy, natural history, classification of environments, etc), practices (including funerary traditions, civil rituals and food production, etc), customs (including political and economic systems etc), beliefs (indigenous religions sacred sites and foundation myths etc), legends (including careful use of controversial works such as the Maragtas), and associated material culture (heirloom jars, textiles, ornaments, boats, etc.)
    3. Focal areas and indigenous groups: Northern Philippines (Batanes, Ilocos, Cordillera); Palawan; Mindanao; Sulu Archipelago
  3. Material evidence (Archaeology)
    1. Terrestrial archaeological sites (habitation and burial sites) and associated artifacts:
      – Focal areas and sites: Batanes ijang and boat burial sites (c. 13th -17th C); Manila sites (Sta. Ana, c. 11th-14th C); Cebu sites (Plaza Independencia, c. 14th-15th C and Boljoon, c. 15th-17th C); Butuan sites (c. 10th-15th C)
    2. Underwater archaeological sites (shipwreck sites) and associated artifacts:
      – Focal areas and sites:
      – c. 8th-10th C: Butuan boat sites
      – c. 13th C: Breaker Reef, Pawikan Shoal, San Antonio site (Zambales)
      – c. 15th C: Pandanan, Santa Cruz, and Lena Shoal sites (Palawan and West Philippine Sea);
      – c. 16th C: Marinduque, Puerto Galera (Oriental Mindoro), San Isidro (Zambales), Gujangan (Jolo) sites
      – 1600: San Diego galleon
    3. Unprovenanced artifacts